Journal articles

Bruce, Bertram C. (2023, Spring). What is democratic education?. Schools Studies in Education, 20(1), .

Chaudhari, Raunak, Manandhar, Smriti K., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2022). Realities of implementing community-based learning during lockdown. Schools: Studies in Education, 19(1), 109–136.

Bruce, Bertram C. (2019). The future experience of education: McClintock on the essential questions. Educational Theory, 68(3), 307-323.

Bruce, Bertram C. (2017). How Jane Addams expands our view of education as an ethical enterprise. Educational Theory, 67(6), 677-692.

Bruce, Bertram C. (2018). Community as curriculum: Nurturing the ecosystem of education. Schools Studies in Education, 15(1), 122–139.

Bruce, Bertram C. (2016, October). All quiet in Quetico. Outpost, pp. 48-63. Online: (2020, April 23) My first Quetico expedition: nature’s lethal power, 1963 (part 1); All’s quiet in Quetico: returning to reflect in 2016 (part 2).

Hogan, Maureen, & Bruce, Bertram C. (2013, October. Editorial for Progressive education: What’s next?. Progressive education: What’s next? [Special issue], International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(3), 8-13. [ISSN: 1554-5210]

Lin, Ching-Chiu, & Bruce, Bertram C. (2013, Summer). Engaging youth in underserved communities through digital-mediated arts learning experiences for community inquiry. Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research, 54.

Bruce, Bertram C.; & Bloch, Naomi (2013, Spring). Pragmatism and community inquiry: A case study of community-based learning. Education and Culture: The Journal of the John Dewey Society, 29(1), 27-45.

Drayton, B., & Bruce, B. C. (2013, June). Editorial for Progressive education: Educating for democracy and the process of authority. Progressive education: Educating for democracy and the process of authority [Special issue], International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(2), 7-10. [ISSN: 1554-5210]

Bruce, Bertram C. (2013). Editorial for the series of three issues: Progressive education: Past, present and future. Progressive education: Antecedents of educating for democracy [Special issue]. International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(1), 7-9.

Pecore, John L., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2013, February). Editorial for Progressive education: Antecedents of educating for democracy. Progressive education: Antecedents of educating for democracy [Special issue]. International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(1), 10-12.

Bruce, Bertram C.; & Bloch, Naomi (2012, in press). The community is the curriculum: A model for education reform. The Journal of HuaZhong University.  Also (2011, January), abstract in Xiaowei Wang (ed.), Proceedings of Philosophical Reflection on Education Reform: International Academic Conference (p. 60). Huádōng Shīfàn Dàxué (East China Normal University), Shanghai.

Williams, Noelle S.; Bishop, Ann P.; Bruce, Bertram C.; & Irish, Sharon (2012, July). Community informatics for whom? Journal of Education in Library and Information Science, 53(3), 218-221.

Bruce, Bertram C.; & Bloch, Naomi (submitted December 20, 2011). Revisiting the problems of the public: A theory of community inquiry. Contemporary Pragmatism.

Bruce, Bertram C.; & Bloch, Naomi (2012, in press). Finding common ground: A theory of community inquiry [寻 找共同的基础:社团探究理论]. Shanghai: Shanghai Joint Publishing House. Also (2011, January) in Hui Lin (ed.), Proceedings of International Symposium on The Role of Philosophy in Education and Educational Research (pp. 234-250). Fùdàn Dàxué, Shanghai. [Response paper, Haiyan Qian (pp. 251-263).]

Bruce, Bertram C.; & Casey, Leo. (2012). The practice of inquiry: A pedagogical ‘sweet spot’ for digital literacy? Computers in the Schools, Special Issue on Signature Pedagogies, 29(1-2), 191-206.

Bruce, Bertram C.; Connell, Jeanne M.; Higgins, Chris; & Mahoney, Joseph T. (2011). The discourse of  management and the management of discourse. International Journal of Strategic Change Management, 3(1-2), 141-154. Also as Working Paper 11-0100, College of Business. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Casey, Leo, & Bruce, Bertram C. (2011). The practice profile of inquiry: Connecting digital literacy and pedagogy. E-Learning and Digital Media, 8(1), 76-85. [ISSN 2042-7530]

Budhathoki, Nama R.; Nedovic-Budic, Zorica; & Bruce, Bertram C. (2010). An interdisciplinary frame for  understanding volunteered geographic information. Special Issue on Volunteered Geographic Information, Geomatica, the Journal of Geospatial Information Science, Technology and Practice, 64(1), 11-26. [ISSN (print): 1195-1036; ISSN (electronic): 1925-4296]

Bruce, Bertram C.; & Reynolds, Abigail (2009, December). Technology in Docklands education: Using scenarios as guides for teaching and research. Educational Studies, 35(5), 561-574.

Ritzo, Chris; Nam, Chaebong; & Bruce, Bertram C. (2009, Summer). Building a strong web: Connecting information spaces across communities [Special issue on school media and Information science]. Library Trends, 58(1), 82-94.

Bishop, Ann P., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2009). Community inquiry and collaborative practice: The iLabs of Paseo Boricua. Journal of Community Informatics, 5(1).

Bruce, Bertram C., & Lin, Ching-Chiu (2009). Voices of youth: Podcasting as a means for inquiry-based community engagement. E-Learning and Digital Media, 6(2).

D’Arcy, Cleora J.; Eastburn, Darin M.; & Bruce, Bertram C. (2009, Winter). How media ecologies can address diverse student needs. College Teaching, 57(1), 56-63. [DOI: 10.3200/CTCH.57.1.56-63 ]

Budhathoki, Nama R.; Bruce, Bertram C.; & Nedovic-Budic, Zorica (2008, August). Reconceptualizing the role of the user of spatial data infrastructures. GeoJournal: An International Journal on Geography, special issue on Volunteered Geographic Information, 72(3-4), 149-160.

Bruce, Bertram C. (2008, June). Coffee cups, frogs, and lived experience. International Journal of Progressive Education, 4(2), 22-39. Slightly modified version published as Bruce, Bertram C. (2009). Coffee cups, frogs, and lived experience. In Patricia Anders (ed.), Defying convention, inventing the future in literacy research and practice: Essays in tribute to Ken and Yetta Goodman (pp. 96-115). New York: Routledge.

Haythornthwaite, Caroline, Bruce, Bertram C., Andrews, R., Kazmer, M. M., Montague, R.-A., & Preston, C. (2007, August 6). Theories and models of and for online learning. Firstmonday, 12(8).

Bishop, Ann P., Bruce, Bertram C., & Jones, M. Cameron (2006). Community inquiry and informatics: Collaborative learning and action through ICT. Journal of Community Informatics, 2(2). To be reprinted in J. M. Carroll (ed.), Learning in communities: Interdisciplinary perspectives on human centred information technology. London: Springer-Verlag.

Bishop, Ann P., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2005, August). Community informatics: Integrating action, research, and learning. American Society for Information Science and Technology Bulletin.

Levin, James A., Burbules, Nicholas C., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2005). From student work to exemplary educational resources: The case of the CTER White Papers. E-Learning and Digital Media, 2(1), 39-49.

Bruce, Bertram C., Dowd, Heather, Eastburn, Darin M., & D’Arcy, Cleora J. (2005, August). Plants, pathogens, and people: Extending the classroom to the web. Teachers College Record, 107(8), 1730-1753. [Feature Article]

Kapitzke, Cushla, & Bruce, Bertram C. (2005, Spring). The digital age: Libr@ries and the arobase: Changing information space and practice. National Conference on Research in Language and Literacy Newsletter, 32(2), 2.

Kapitzke, Cushla, & Bruce, Bertram C. (2005). The arobase in the libr@ary: New political economies of children’s literature and literacy. Computers and Composition: Special Issue on the Influence of Gunther Kress’ Work, 22(1), 69-78. [doi:10.1016/j.compcom.2004.12.014]

Beach, R., Bruce, Bertram C., Leander, K., & Myers, J. (2005). Commentary, criticism, and kudos: From the reviews of “The construction of meaning and identity in the composition and reading of an architectural text.” Reading Research Quarterly: Supplementary Online-Only Material, 40(1). [doi:10.1598/RRQ.40.1.4]

Bishop, Ann P.; Bruce, Bertram C.; Lunsford, Karen J.;Jones, M. Cameron; Nazarova, Muzghan; Linderman, David; Won, Mihye; Heidorn, P. Bryan; Ramprakash, Rajeev; & Brock, André (2004). Supporting community inquiry with digital resources. Journal of Digital Information, 5(3), Article No. 308, 2004-08-24.

Bruce, Bertram C. (2003, Summer). Connecting learning and life. Frontiers!: Official publication of the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, p. 7.

Comstock, Sharon L., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2003). Poetry as play: Expression as inquiry. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 31(2), 40-48.

Bruce, Bertram C., Bishop, Ann P., Heidorn, P. Bryan, Lunsford, Karen J., Poulakos, Steven, & Won, Mihwe (2003, January/February). The Inquiry Page: Bridging digital libraries to learners. Knowledge Quest, 31(3), 15-17. [ISSN, 1094-9046]. Reprinted in P. Montiel-Overall & D. C. Adcock (eds.), Collaboration (Best of KQ). Chicago: American Library Association, 2007, ISBN: 0-8389-8447-5.

During 1997-2002, I edited the Technology Department in the International Reading Association’s Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy (JAAL). The columns were intended to promote dialogue about new communication and information technologies and to explore what these media mean for literacy and literacy educators. Each had several distinct sections, including an “email” message from me, an “issue of the month,” often written by a guest author, descriptions of selected websites, and a glossary. In addition to the print version, each column appeared in the Electronic Classroom section of Reading Online.

The columns have now been collected into a book, Literacy in the Information Age: Inquiries into Meaning Making with New Technologies (2003, Newark, DE: International Reading Association).

Chin, Christine; Brown, David E.; & Bruce, Bertram C. (2002). Student-generated questions: A meaningful aspect of learning in science. International Journal of Science Education, 24(5), 521-549.

D’Arcy, Cleora J.; Eastburn, Darin M.; & Bruce, Bertram C. (2002). PPP: Plants, pathogens, and people: A web site to improve student awareness of agriculture. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-T-2002-0514-01.

Benson, A. P., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2001, August). Using the web to promote inquiry and collaboration: A snapshot of the Inquiry Page’s development. Teaching Education, 12(2), 153-163.

Bruce, Bertram C. (2001). The Inquiry Page: A collaboratory for curricular innovationLearning Technology Newsletter, 3(1). [ISSN 1438-0625]

Kanfer, Alaina; Bruce, Bertram C.; Haythornthwaite, Caroline A.; Burbules, Nicholas; Wade, James B.; Bowker, Geoffrey C.; & Porac, Joseph F. (2000). Modelling distributed knowledge processes in next generation multidisciplinary alliances. Information Systems Frontiers: A Journal of Research and Innovation, 2(3/4).

Bruce, Bertram C., & Easley, John A., Jr. (2000). Emerging communities of practice: Collaboration and communication in action research. Educational Action Research, 8(2), 243-259.

Bruce, Susan P., & Bruce, Bertram C. (2000). Constructing images of science: People, technologies, and practices. Computers and Human Behavior, 16(3), 241-256. [doi:10.1016/S0747-5632(00)00004-2]

Bruce, Bertram C. (2000). Credibility of the web: Why we need dialectical reading. Journal of Philosophy of Education (special issue), 34(1), 97-109.  Also in Paul Standish & Nigel. Blake (Eds.), Enquiries at the interface: Philosophical problems of online education (pp. 107-122). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.  [DOI: 10.1111/1467-9752.00158]

Bruce, Bertram C., & Peyton, Joy K. (1999, December). Literacy development in network-based classrooms: Innovation and realizations. International Journal of Educational Technology, 1(2). [ISSN 1327-7308] Earlier version was Peyton, Joy K., & Bruce, Bertram C. (1994, May). Literacy development in network-based classrooms (Technical Report No. 597). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C., Thakkar, Umesh, & Hogan, Maureen (1999, Fall). Inquiry-based learning and teaching with new technologies. Spectrum: The Journal of the Illinois Science Teachers Association, 25(2), 16-20.

Hsu, Shihkuan, & Bruce, Bertram C. (1999). The missing borders: Pedagogical reflections from distance education. Teaching Education, 10(1), 47-54.

Harris, G., & Bruce, Bertram C. (1998, Spring). Adopting telecommunications: A teacher’s personal quest. Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators Journal, 2, 16-27.

Bruce, Bertram C., & Levin, James A. (1997). Educational technology: Media for inquiry, communication, construction, and expression. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 17(1), 79-102.

Bruce, Bertram C., & Bruce, Susan P. (1997, May). Learning from China. Peking University Office of Foreign Affairs Newsletter, pp. 4-7.

Bruce, Bertram C.; Carragher, Bridget O.; Damon, Bruce M.; Dawson, M. Joan; Eurell, Jo Ann; Gregory, Carl D.; Lauterbur, Paul C.; Marjanovic, Marina M.; Mason-Fossum, Barbara; Morris, H.D.; Potter, Clint S.; & Thakkar, Umesh (1997, November). Chickscope: An interactive MRI classroom curriculum innovation for K-12. Computers and Education Journal, 29(2-3), 73- 87.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1997). Literacy technologies: What stance should we take? Journal of Literacy Research, 29 (2), 289-309.

Bruce, Bertram C., & Leander, Kevin (1997). Searching for digital libraries in education: Why computers cannot tell the story. Library Trends, 45 (4), (Special issue: Children and the digital library), 746-770.

Bruce, Bertram C., Weissman, Michael, & Novak, Michael (1997, Summer). Science education outreach: Physics demonstrations lectures, and workshops. Spectrum: The Journal of the Illinois Science Teachers Association, 23 (2), 8-12.

Bruce, Bertram C., Bruce, S. P., Conrad, Rebecca L., & Huang, Hui-Ju (1997). University science students as curriculum planners, teachers, and role models in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(1), 69-88.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1996, Fall). Technology as social practice. Educational Foundations, 10(4), 51-58. [ISSN 1047-8248]

Commeyras, Michelle; Orellana, Marjorie F.; Bruce, Bertram C.; & Neilsen, Lorri (1996). What do feminist theories have to offer to literacy, education, and research? Reading Research Quarterly, 31 (4), 458-468.

Bruce, Bertram C., & Davidson, Judith (1996). An inquiry model for literacy across the curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 28(3), 281-300. Also as (1994, August), Technical Report No. 598). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1995, December). Understanding the response of readers in the digital library. Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on Office Information Systems): Special Issue on Digital Libraries (Guest Editor: Ann P. Bishop), 16(2), 41-42.

Sharples, M., & Bruce, Bertram C. (1995). Collaborative writing and technological change: Implications for writing practice and system design. Special Issue of Computer Supported Cooperative Work: Computer Supported Cooperative Writing, 3(3-4), 225-228.

Gruber, Sibylle; Bruce, Bertram C.; & Peyton, Joy K. (1995). Collaborative writing in multiple discourse contexts. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 3 (3-4), (Special issue: Computer supported cooperative writing), 247-269.

Burbules, Nicholas C., & Bruce, Bertram C. (1995, November). This is not a paper. Educational Researcher, 24 (8), 12- 18.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1995). Anticipation or struggle?: Political constraints on visions of the future: Commentary on “Anticipating applications for digital video communications: Two scenarios for Australia”. Technology Studies, 2(1).

Bruce, Susan; Conrad, Rebecca; Huang, Hui-Ru; & Bruce, Bertram C. (1994, Winter). Project SEARCH: Bringing university science resources into the elementary classroom. Spectrum: The Journal of the Illinois Science Teachers Association, 20(4), 5-9.

Meyer Reimer, Kathryn; & Bruce, Bertram C. (1994). Building teacher-researcher collaboration: Dilemmas and strategies. Educational Action Research, 2(2), 211-221. [ISSN printed: 0965-0792. ISSN electronic: 1747-5074] . Also as Technical Report No. 577 (1993, June). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Commeyras, Michelle; Osborn, Jean; & Bruce, Bertram C. (1994). What do classroom teachers think about the 1992 NAEP in reading? Reading Research and Instruction, 34(1), 5-18.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1994, Summer). Network-based classrooms. Contemporary Education, 65(4), 226-230.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1993, Winter). Electronic DIME. Dialogues in Methods of Education Newsletter, p. 5.

Bruce, Bertram C., Osborn, J., & Commeyras, Michelle (1993). Contention and consensus: The development of the 1992 National Assessment of Educational Progress in Reading. Educational Assessment, 1(3), 225-253.

Waugh, Michael L.; Bruce, Bertram C.; Clift, Renee; & Brown, David E. (1993, Spring). Illinois initiates electronic networking to enrich preservice and inservice teaching. The Holmes Group Forum. (Available from The Holmes Group, 501 Erickson Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1034).

Devaney, Kathleen (Ed.) (1992). Chip Bruce’s taxonomy of educational technology applications. The Holmes Group Forum, 6(2), 10. (Available from The Holmes Group, 501 Erickson Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1034). Reprinted in Clarke, J. H. & Agne, R. M. (1997). Interdisciplinary high school teaching: Strategies for integrated learning (pp. 172-173). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Rubin, Andee, & Bruce, Bertram C. (1991). Using computers to support students’ understanding of statistical inference. New England Mathematics Journal, 23, 9-20.

Rubin, Andee, & Bruce, Bertram C. (1990). Alternate realizations of purpose in computer-supported writing. Theory into Practice, 29, 256-263. Also as Center for Technology in Education Technical Report No. 3, Education Development Center, Inc., Center for Children and Technology, Newton, MA.

Bruce, Bertram C., & Peyton, Joy K. (1990). A new writing environment and an old culture: A situated evaluation of computer networking to teach writing. Interactive Learning Environments, 1, 171-191. Earlier version: (1992, October). A situated evaluation of computer networking to teach writing (Technical Report No. 565). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Rubin, Andee; Bruce, Bertram C.; & Tenney, Yvette (1990, April). Learning about sampling: Trouble at the core of statistics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Boston, MA.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1986). User models for free in second language learning? Journal of Structural Learning, 9, 191-193.

Rubin, Andee, & Bruce, Bertram C. (1985). Learning with Quill: Lessons for students, teachers and software designers. Quick: Journal of the Computer Education Group of Queensland, 20, 33-37. Originally written for publication in T. E. Raphael (Ed.) (1986), The contexts of school-based literacy (pp. 217-230). New York: Random House. Reprinted (1987) in C. N. Hedley & J. S. Hicks (Ed.), Reading and the special learner (pp. 229-244). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Also as Reading Education Report No. 60 (1985, December). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C.; Michaels, Sarah; & Watson-Gegeo, Karen (1985). How computers can change the writing process. Language Arts, 62(2), 143-49. Earlier version: (1984, August). Reviewing the Black History Show: How computers can change the writing process (Technical Report No. 320). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Newman, D., & Bruce, Bertram C. (1986). Interpretation and manipulation in human plans. Discourse Processes, 9, 167-195. Also as Technical Report No. 317 (1984, July). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1985). Taking control of educational technology. Science for the People, 17, 37-40. Reprinted as Document 7.4 in Sigrid Schmalzer, Daniel S. Chard, & Alyssa Botelho (eds.) (2018), Science for the People: Documents from America’s Movement of radical scientists (pp. 167-171). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Michaels, Sarah; Cazden, Courtney; and Bruce, Bertram C. (1985). Whose computer is it anyway? Schools embrace computers without knowing why. Science for the People, 17, 36, 43-44.

Tonfoni, Graziella, & Bruce, Bertram C. (1984). Guidelines to check coherence in explanatory texts. Note di Software, 25/26, Honeywell Information Systems Italia, Milano, Giugno, 47-55.

Starr, Kathleen S., & Bruce, Bertram C. (1983, March). Reading comprehension: More emphasis needed. Curriculum Update, pp. 1-4.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1983). Plans and discourse. TEXT: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse, 3 (Special issue: Formal Models of Discourse), 253-259.

Bruce, Bertram C.; Collins, Allan; Rubin, Andee; & Gentner, D. (1982). Three perspectives on writing. Educational Psychologist, 17, 131-145. Also as Reading Education Report No. 41 (1983, May). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Kantor, Robert N.; Bruce, Bertram C.; Green, Georgia M.; Morgan, Jerry L.; Stein, Nancy L.; & Webber, Bonnie L. (1982). Many problems and some techniques of text analysis. Poetics, 11(3), 237-264.

Bruce, Bertram C.; Rubin, Andee; & Starr, Kathleen S. (1981). Why readability formulas fail. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, PC-24, 50-52. Also as Reading Education Report No. 28 (1981, August). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading, and BBN Report No. 4715 (1981). Cambridge, MA: Bolt Beranek and Newman.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1981). Stories within stories. Language Arts, 58, 931-936. Also as Reading Education Report No. 29 (1981, August). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1981). A social interaction model of reading. Discourse Processes, 4, 273-311. Also as Technical Report No. 218 (1981, September). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1981). Conversing with HWIM. Cognition and Brain Theory, 4, 123-138.

The Sociobiology Study Group of Science for the People (1979). The new magic box: Sociobiology. The Psych-Agitator, 5, 34-40.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1980). Analysis of interacting plans as a guide to the understanding of story structure. Poetics, 9, 295-311. Also as Technical Report No. 130 (1979, June). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Cohen, Phil, & Bruce, C. (1978, August). Workshop on social plans and language. ACM SIGART Bulletin, Issue 66, 4-9.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1978, June). What makes a good story? Language Arts, 55, 460-466. Also as Reading Education Report No. 5 (1979, June). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C., & Newman, Denis (1978). Interacting plans. Cognitive Science, 2, 195-233. Reprinted in A. Bond & Les Gasser (Eds.) (1988), Readings in distributed artificial intelligence (pp. 248-267). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. Earlier, exended version (1978, June) Interacting plans (Technical Report No. 88). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1976). A logic for unknown outcomes. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 17, 542-550. Also as Report No. CBM-TM-35. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Computer Science Department.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1975). Discourse models and language comprehension. American Journal for Computational Linguistics, Microfiche 35, 19-35.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1975). Case systems for natural language. Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal, 6, 327-360. Also as BBN Report No. 3010 (1975, March). Cambridge, MA: Bolt Beranek and Newman.

Bruce, Bertram C. (1972). A model for temporal references and its application in a question answering program. Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal, 3, 1-26.